Digital Information and Records Law

Use of Digital Signatures in e-Financial Transactions in Vietnam

In Vietnam, the increase in e-commerce over the past two years — as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic — has gone hand in hand with increased use of cashless payments and online banking transactions. To this end, digital signatures have played an essential role in the digitization strategy of the country’s banking sector. However,


“Zero-Click” Hacks Highlight Risks of Using Personal Devices for Business Use

A new threat known as a “zero-click” hack, which does not require a malicious link or attachment, is emerging from well-documented, state-sponsored spyware schemes. While users have grown accustomed to guarding against phishing attacks, the latest zero-click compromises enable threat actors to gain unauthorized control of smartphones and computers without the user’s knowledge. Instead, hackers exploit security flaws


China’s New Data Security Law

With online data privacy protection not having been a priority for too long, companies should be aware that China is now stepping up its game with the new Data Security Law (DSL) that was passed on 10 June 2021 and comes into effect on September 1, 2021. A separate draft of the Personal Information Protection


Deadline Has Arrived to Comply with France’s New Rules on Cookies

The last day for entities to bring their websites and mobile applications into compliance with the French Data Protection Authority’s (Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés, or CNIL) new rules on cookies and other trackers is 31 March 2021. Following the publication of its guidelines and recommendations on 1 October 2020, the CNIL granted


Cookies: Requirements Under the Hong Kong Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance

Cookies, also known as HTTP Cookies, are text files which are stored on a user’s computer to enable website owners to identity the user’s computer or electronic device. They are generally used by website owners to track a user’s online behaviour or interaction with websites. These text files typically store information such as the user’s


Five Good Habits When Digitizing Business Activity

These days, digitalization is essential for companies in France and elsewhere wishing to offer their products and/or services to the public — especially in the midst of the current COVID-19 health crisis. The following five “rules” can help: Rule 1: Contractually supervise the IT developments of a third party. In particular, businesses should define project


Two Years of GDPR — Are You Compliant Yet?

The 25th of May 2020 marks two years since the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into force. The GDPR imposes strict obligations on data controllers and processors which are entrusted with the personal data of individuals. Furthermore, it provides several rights to data subjects, through which they are able to hold data controllers accountable


COVID-19 Infects Smart Working and Data Protection Rules in Italy

The unfortunate spread of COVID-19 throughout Italy led to some interesting legislative measures. Smart Working Thanks to a Decree of the Prime Minister adopted on March 1, 2020, employers could employ their workers by remote working, even without the individual agreements in writing mandated by Law no. 81/2017. Remote or “smart” working is not mandatory.


How The California Consumer Privacy Act Could Affect Your Business

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) went into effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA affects all businesses collecting or storing data about California residents (an estimated 500,000 businesses nationwide). It imposes significant compliance obligations upon the businesses within its scope and carries large penalties for those who fail to comply. The California Attorney General


Who Is Watching Over You? Home Privacy in Hong Kong

In a crowded city such as Hong Kong, where the majority of residents live in apartment blocks that are built in close proximity to each other, home privacy can be an issue. People can see through your windows, the security guards know all about your visitors. Many aspects of your life and living circumstances are laid bare


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