Digital Information and Records Law

China’s New Data Security Law

With online data privacy protection not having been a priority for too long, companies should be aware that China is now stepping up its game with the new Data Security Law (DSL) that was passed on 10 June 2021 and comes into effect on September 1, 2021. A separate draft of the Personal Information Protection

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Deadline Has Arrived to Comply with France’s New Rules on Cookies

The last day for entities to bring their websites and mobile applications into compliance with the French Data Protection Authority’s (Commission Nationale de l’Informatique et des Libertés, or CNIL) new rules on cookies and other trackers is 31 March 2021. Following the publication of its guidelines and recommendations on 1 October 2020, the CNIL granted

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Cookies: Requirements Under the Hong Kong Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance

Cookies, also known as HTTP Cookies, are text files which are stored on a user’s computer to enable website owners to identity the user’s computer or electronic device. They are generally used by website owners to track a user’s online behaviour or interaction with websites. These text files typically store information such as the user’s

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Five Good Habits When Digitizing Business Activity

These days, digitalization is essential for companies in France and elsewhere wishing to offer their products and/or services to the public — especially in the midst of the current COVID-19 health crisis. The following five “rules” can help: Rule 1: Contractually supervise the IT developments of a third party. In particular, businesses should define project

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Two Years of GDPR — Are You Compliant Yet?

The 25th of May 2020 marks two years since the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into force. The GDPR imposes strict obligations on data controllers and processors which are entrusted with the personal data of individuals. Furthermore, it provides several rights to data subjects, through which they are able to hold data controllers accountable

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COVID-19 Infects Smart Working and Data Protection Rules in Italy

The unfortunate spread of COVID-19 throughout Italy led to some interesting legislative measures. Smart Working Thanks to a Decree of the Prime Minister adopted on March 1, 2020, employers could employ their workers by remote working, even without the individual agreements in writing mandated by Law no. 81/2017. Remote or “smart” working is not mandatory.

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How The California Consumer Privacy Act Could Affect Your Business

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) went into effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA affects all businesses collecting or storing data about California residents (an estimated 500,000 businesses nationwide). It imposes significant compliance obligations upon the businesses within its scope and carries large penalties for those who fail to comply. The California Attorney General

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Who Is Watching Over You? Home Privacy in Hong Kong

In a crowded city such as Hong Kong, where the majority of residents live in apartment blocks that are built in close proximity to each other, home privacy can be an issue. People can see through your windows, the security guards know all about your visitors. Many aspects of your life and living circumstances are laid bare

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Spain’s Supreme Court: Bitcoin Is Not Legal Tender

The Bitcoin, for the purposes of civil liability derived from crime, is not legal tender. This was the conclusion reached by the Supreme Court of Spain in its Judgment of June 20, 2019, rejecting a final appeal in cassation No. 998/2018. As background to this judgment, we can say that the defendant had been convicted

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Italy Recognizes Legal Effects of Documents Based on Blockchain Technologies

Under Italian law a document saved through blockchain technologies can have legal effects. According to Law Decree 135/2018 (Decreto Semplificazioni), which was recently confirmed into law by Law 12/2019, technologies based on distributed records can have the same legal effects as electronic time stamps under section 41 of EU Regulation 910/2014. Such effects will be

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